Common Substitutions

The following substitutions, while common, should not be employed thoughtlessly. Buttermilk is an example which comes to mind (probably because I have a good article on the subject). You almost always lose something when you substitute (if the ingredient brings something else to the party then it's an alternative). So go ahead and substitute but do a little research and find out what other impact you're having on your recipe.



Baker's Ammonia (Hartshorn)1 tsp1 tsp baking powder (when using in cookie recipes)
Baking Mix2 cupsMix 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, 2 1/2 tsp baking powder, 3/4 tsp salt and 1/3 cup shortening
Baking Powder1 tsp1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
Baking Powder1 tsp1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup sour milk, buttermilk, or plain yogurt
Baking Powder1 tsp1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup
Baking Powder1 tsp1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/4 to 1/2 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 tbsp)
Baking Powder1 tsp1 tsp Baker's Ammonia (or Hartshorn)
Biscuit Mix2 1/4 cups2 cups flour sifted, 1 tbsp baking powder, 1 tsp salt, 1/4 cup shortening
Cake Flour1 cup1 cup minus 2 tbsp all-purpose flour, sifted
Cake Flour1 cup1 cup all-purpose flour sifted 3 times, then measured to make 1 cup
Cake Flour1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 tbsp cornstarch
Carob Powder1 tbsp1 tbsp cocoa powder
Chocolate1 square unsweetened3 tbsp unsweetened baking cocoa plus 1 tbsp butter, vegetable shortening or margarine
Chocolate1 square unsweetened3 tbsp carob powder plus 2 tbsp water
Chocolate1 oz semisweet baking or bittersweet1 oz unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 tbsp sugar
Chocolate1 cup semisweet chips6 oz semisweet baking chocolate, chopped
Cocoa1/4 cup or 4 tbsp1 oz (square) chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 tbsp)
Coconut1 tbsp grated, dry1 1/2 tbsp fresh, grated
Coconut Cream1 cup1 cup cream
Coconut Milk1 cup1 cup milk
Cornmeal, self-rising1 cup1 cup plain cornmeal, 1 tsp baking powder, 1/2 tsp salt
Cornstarch1 tbsp2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Cornstarch1 tbsp2 tbsp tapioca
Cornstarch1 tbsp2 1/2 ttsp arrowroot
Corn Syrup1 cup lightMix 1 cup granulated sugar with 1/4 cup liquid used in recipe
Corn Syrup1 cup light1 1/4 cups light brown sugar, 1/3 cup liquid
Corn Syrup1 cup light1 cup honey
Corn Syrup1 cup dark1 cup light corn syrup
Corn Syrup1 cup dark3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses
Corn Syrup1 cup dark1 cup maple-flavored syrup
Cream of Tartar1/2 tsp1 1/2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1/2 tbsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, or arrowroot starch
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1 tbsp granular tapioca
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)2 tsp quick-cooking tapioca
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1/2 tbsp arrowroot
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1 egg, 2 egg whites, or 2 egg yolks
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1 tbsp corn flour
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)7/8 tbsp rice flour
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)2 tbsp browned flour
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1 1/2 tbsp whole wheat flour
Flour, all-purpose1 tbsp (for thickening)1/2 tbsp whole wheat flour plus 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Flour, cake1 cup sifted1 cup minus 2 tbsp all-purpose flour, sifted
Flour, cake1 cup sifted1 cup all-purpose flour sifted 3 times, then measured to make 1 cup
Flour, cake1 cup sifted7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 tbsp cornstarch
Flour, cornAll-purpose flour
Flour, gluten13 tbsp1 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, masa harinaCornmeal
Flour, pastry1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, potato1 tbsp2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Flour, potato1 tbsp1 tbsp cornstarch
Flour, rice7/8 cup1 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, rye1 1/4 cup1 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, self-rising1 cup1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt
Flour, whole wheat, coarse1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose flour
Flour, whole wheat, fineAll-purpose flour
Marshmallow1 regular10 mini marshmallows
Marshmallow Creme1 jarMelt 16 ounces of marshmallows and 3 1/2 tbsp corn syrup in a double boiler
Marshmallows, miniature1 cup10 large marshmallows
Marzipan2 1/2 cups2 cups almond paste, 1 cup powdered sugar, 2 tbsp corn syrup
Molasses1 cup1/2 cup honey (flavor will be milder) ||3/4 cup sugar, 1/4 cup water
Onion Soup Mix, dry2 tbsp1 tbsp instant minced onion, 1 beef bouillon cube
SaltSalt varies too much by type and even brand to provide a definitive number. Anything more than a pinch should be weighed.
Sugar, brown1 cup1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup
Sugar, brown, dark1 cup1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup
Sugar, confectioners' or powdered1 cup3/4 cup granulated sugar ||1 cup granulated sugar and 1 tsp of cornstarch finely ground in blender.
Sugar, cube11/2 tsp granulated sugar
Sugar, granulated1 cup1 cup light brown sugar (packed)
Sugar, granulated1 cup2 cups powdered sugar
Sugar, granulated1 cup3/4 cup honey (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup)
Sugar, granulated1 cup1 3/4 cups confectioners' sugar (not for baking)
Sugar, superfineGrind granulated white sugar in a blender or food processor
Sugar, white1 cup1 cup Sugar Twin or Sprinkle Sweet
Sugar, white2 tsp1 packet Equal
Sugar, white1 tsp10 drops of Sweet 10
Sugar, white1/2 cup1 tbsp of Sweet 10
Vanilla Bean2-inch piece1 tsp pure vanilla extract
Yeast, compressed1 cake1 package or 2 tsp active dry yeast
Yeast, regular or quick active dry1 pkg (1/4 oz)2 1/4 tsp regular or quick active dry
Yeast, regular or quick active dry1 pkg (1/4 oz)1 pkg (.6 oz) compressed cake yeast
Yeasts cannot be exchanged with impunity. See All About Dry Yeast: Instant, Active Dry, Fast-Acting, and More



Butter1 cup1 cup margarine
Butter1 cup1 1/3 cup whipped butter (for sauteing)
Butter1 cup1 cup hydrogenated fat plus 1/2 tsp salt
Butter1 cup7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 tsp salt
Butter1 cup7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt
Butter1 cup7/8 cup vegetable shortening
Butter1 cup7/8 cup oil
Butter1 cup3/4 cup olive oil
Butter1 cup8 tsp (1 envelope) butter buds, 1/2 cup liquid, 1/2 cup butter
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cupMix 1 tbsp white vinegar or lemon juice with 1 cup milk, let stand 5 minutes1
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cup1 cup whole milk, 1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar1
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cup1 cup water, 1/4 cup buttermilk powder1
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cup3/4 cup of plain yogurt and 1/4 cup of milk1
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cup1 cup plain yogurt (for baking)1
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cup1 cup sour cream (for baking)1
Buttermilk or Sour Milk1 cup1 cup kefir (for baking)
Cheese, farmerequal amountCottage cheese, dry or drained
Cheese, goatequal amountFeta cheese
Cheese, mascarponeequal amountCream cheese
Cheese, parmigiano reggianoequal amountDomestic Parmesan, Grana Padano, aged Asiago, Pecorino Romano
Cheese, ricottaequal amountCottage cheese
Cheese, romanoequal amountParmesan cheese
Cheese, sharp cheddar1 cup1 cup cheddar (mild), 1/8 tsp dry mustard, 1/4 tsp worcestershire sauce
Cottage cheeseequal amountRicotta or farmer cheese
Cream Cheeseequal amountPart skim milk ricotta cheese or lowfat cottage cheese beaten until smooth
Cream, half and half1 cup7/8 cup whole milk plus 1/2 tbsp butter
Cream, half and half1 cup3 tbsp oil plus milk to equal 1 cup
Cream, half and half1 cup1 cup evaporated milk
Cream, half and half1 cup3/4 cup whole milk plus 1/4 cup heavy cream
Cream, half and half1 cup2/3 cup skim or low-fat milk plus 1/3 cup heavy cream
Cream, heavy1 cup (not for whipping)3/4 cup sweet milk plus 1/3 cup butter
Cream, heavy1 cup (not for whipping)2 cups whipped dessert topping
Cream, heavy1 cup (not for whipping)1 cup evaporated milk
Cream, heavy1 cup whipped2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil
Cream, light1 cup1/2 cup heavy cream, 1/2 cup whole milk
Cream, light1 cup7/8 cup sweet milk plus 3 tbsp butter
Cream, light1 cup1 tbsp melted butter plus enough milk to make 1 cup
Cream, light1 cup (for cooking)7/8 cup whole milk, 3 tbsp butter
Cream, light1 cup (for cooking)1 cup undiluted evaporated milk
Cream, soured1 cup7/8 cup sour milk plus 3 tbsp butter
Cream, soured1 cup7/8 cup buttermilk plus 3 tbsp butter
Cream, whipped, sweetened1 cup4 oz whipped topping
Cream, whipped, sweetened1 cup1 1/4 oz dessert topping mix, prepared
Cream, whipped, sweetened1 cup13 oz. can evaporated milk chilled for 12 hours plus 1 tsp lemon juice. Whip until stiff.
Cream, whipped, sweetened1 cup1/2 cup ice-cold water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Beat until stiff. Add 1/2 cup sugar while beating. Add 2 tbsp lemon juice and beat until mixed.
Cream, whipping1 cup2/3 cup evaporated milk, 4 tsp lemon juice or vinegar
Cream, whipping1 cup1/2 cup nonfat dry milk, 1/3 cup water, 1 tbsp lemon juice
Crème fraîche1 cup1/2 cup sour cream plus 1/2 cup heavy cream
Half and Half1 cup7/8 cup whole milk, 1 1/2 tsp butter
Half and Half1 cup1/2 cup whole milk, 1/2 cup light cream
Half and Half1 cup3/4 cup whole milk, 1/4 cup heavy cream
Half and Half1 cup2/3 cup low-fat or skim milk, 1/3 cup heavy cream
Milk, condensed, sweetened1 cup1 cup nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup boiling water, 2/3 cup sugar, 3 tbsp melted butter (process in blender until smooth)
Milk, condensed, sweetened1 cup1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 1/4 cup of sugar cooked over low heat until sugar is dissolved.
Milk, evaporated1 can (12 oz)12 oz cream
Milk, evaporated1 can (12 oz)Whip until smooth: 1 cup nonfat dry milk, 1 3/4 cups warm water. Keep refrigerated.
Milk, regular or low-fat1 cup1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
Milk, regular or low-fat1 cupnonfat dry milk prepared as directed on package
Milk, skim1 cup3/4 cup water, 1/3 cup nonfat dry milk
Milk, sour1 cup1 cup sweet milk plus 1 tbsp vinegar or lemon juice
Milk, sweet1 cup1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
Milk, sweet1 cup1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 tsp butter
Milk, whole1 cup1/2 cup evaporated milk, 1/2 cup water
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup nonfat milk, 2 1/2 tsp butter
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup skim milk, 1 tbsp melted butter
Milk, whole1 cup7/8 cup skim milk, 1/8 cup heavy cream
Milk, whole1 cup5/8 cup skim milk, 3/8 cup half and half
Milk, whole1 cup2/3 cup 1% milk, 1/3 cup half and half
Milk, whole1 cup3/4 cup 2% milk, 1/4 cup half and half
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup water, 4 tbsp dry whole milk
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter (in baking)
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 1/2 tsp butter
Sour Cream1 cup1 cup plain whole yogurt, 3 tbsp melted butter
Sour Cream1 cup3/4 cup buttermilk plus 1/4 cup oil
Sour Cream1 cup3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
Sour Cream1 cup1/2 cup cottage cheese and 1/2 cup. of plain yogurt.
Sour Cream (for baking)1 cup3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk, 1/3 cup butter
Sour Cream (for baking)1 cup1 cup plain yogurt, 1 tsp baking soda
Sour Cream (for baking)1 cup1 tbsp lemon juice, 7/8 cup plus 1 tbsp evaporated milk
Sour Cream (for dips)1 1/4 cups1 cup cottage cheese, 1/4 cup plain yogurt or buttermilk (blend in processor)
Sour Cream (for dips)1 1/4 cups1 cup cottage cheese, 1 tbsp lemon juice, 1/4 cup milk or water, 1/8 tsp salt (blend in processor)
Sour Cream (for dips)1 1/4 cups8 oz cream cheese, 1/4 cup milk (blend in processor)
Whipping Cream (whipped)equal amountFrozen (thawed) whipped topping
Whipping Cream (whipped)equal amountPrepared whipped topping mix
Yogurt, plainequal amountSour cream
Yogurt, plainequal amountButtermilk
Yogurt, plainequal amountCottage cheese blended until smooth
1What you'll give up if you substitute for buttermilk.



Egg (for baking)11 egg yolk, 1 tbsp water
Egg1Mix 2 tbsp of milk with 1/2 tsp baking powder
Egg12 egg yolks
Egg11 egg white plus 2 tsp oil
Egg12 egg whites
Egg11/4 cup cholesterol-free egg substitute
Egg12 egg yolks (for puddings or custard)
Egg12 egg yolks plus 1 tbsp water (for bars or cookies)
Egg Substitute1 egg2 egg whites plus 1-3 tsp vegetable oil for each yolk omitted
Egg Substitute1 egg1 egg white, 2 1/4 tsp nonfat dry milk powder, 2 tsp vegetable oil
Egg White11 tbsp meringue powder plus 2 tbsp water
Egg Yolks21 whole egg
Egg Yolks1 large egg yolk2 tbsp egg substitute

Egg Size Substitutions

In Canada, all Grade A hens eggs are categorized by weight, not size or shape. The following minimum weights are used to classify eggs:
Peewee - less than 42 grams
Small - at least 42 grams
Medium - at least 49 grams
Large - at least 56 grams
Extra Large - at least 63 grams
Jumbo - 70 grams or more

Recipes are usually written using large eggs and for most cookery the size matters little but for baking to substitute another size, follow this chart:

LargeSmallMediumExtra Large
1 egg211
2 eggs322
3 eggs443
4 eggs653
5 eggs764
6 eggs875

A large egg typically has a cooking yield of 3 1/4 tablespoons. If you're cutting back just beat the egg and measure out what you need.

Egg colour

Hens eggs are white. Don't believe me? Look inside the next time you crack a brown egg. White, beautiful pure white. The tint is applied by the chickens reproductive system while the egg passes through it. There is apparently no difference in the flavour of eggs produced by different breeds. Why this should be I'm not sure but in my limited experience it is true. For a sampling of the colours available see For what it's worth (very little) the egg factory people would have you believe that the birds feather colour represents the colour of the egg (and that only brown and white are available).

Fats, Oils and Vinegars


Chili Oil1/4 tsp1/4 tsp salad oil plus pinch of cayenne
Lardequal amountSchmaltz
Lardequal amountShortening
Sesame Oil1 tbsp1 1/2 tsp sesame seeds sautéed in 1/2 tsp vegetable oil
Shortening, melted1 cup1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should not be substituted if recipe does not call for melted shortening)
Shortening1 cup1 cup minus 2 tbsp schmaltz (savoury dishes)
Shortening1 cup1 cup minus 2 tbsp lard
Shortening1 cup1 1/8 cups unsalted butter
Vegetable Oilequal amountOlive oil
Vegetable Oilequal amountButter
Vegetable Oilequal amountGhee
Vegetable Oilequal amountCoconut Oil
Vegetable Oilequal amountLard
Vegetable Oilequal amountPeanut Oil
Vegetable Oilequal amountSafflower Oil
Vegetable Oilequal amountSunflower Oil
Vinegarequal amountLemon juice
Vinegar, Balsamicequal amountSherry or cider vinegar
Vinegar, Chineseequal amountBalsamic vinegar
Vinegar, Red Wine (for salad dressing)4 tbsp3 tbsp cider vinegar, 1 tbsp red wine
Vinegar, Sherryequal amountBalsamic vinegar

Fruit and Vegetable


Capersequal amountChopped green olives
Celery1/2 cup (1 rib)1/4 cup celery flakes
Celery1/2 cup (1 rib)1/2 cup green pepper or fennel bulb
Chile, Scotch Bonnetequal amountHabanero chili
Chile, Serranoequal amountJalapeño chile
Chivesequal amountScallion greens
Currants, driedequal amountRaisins or chopped dates
Dates, choppedequal amountDried currants
Dates, choppedequal amountChopped figs
Dates, choppedequal amountChopped prunes
Dates, choppedequal amountChopped raisins
Horseradish1 tbsp fresh2 tbsp bottled
Jicama, choppedequal amountChopped water chestnuts or tart apple
Leeksequal amountShallots
Lemon or Lime Juice (fresh)equal amountBottled lemon or lime juice or white vinegar
Lemon or Lime Peel (grated)equal amountDried lemon or lime peel
Mushrooms, fresh1 cup cooked sliced1 can (4 oz) mushroom stems and pieces, drained
Mushrooms, fresh1 lb12 oz canned mushrooms
Mushrooms, fresh1 lb3 oz dried mushrooms, reconstituted
Mushrooms, powdered1 tbsp3 tbsp whole dried mushrooms
Mushrooms, powdered1 tbsp4 oz fresh
Mushrooms, powdered1 tbsp2 oz canned
Onion, fresh1/4 cup minced1 tbsp instant minced onion
Onion, fresh1/4 cup minced1 tbsp onion flakes
Onion, fresh1/4 cup minced1 tsp onion powder
Onion, fresh1 med-size onion, chopped (2/3 cup)1 tbsp onion powder
Onion, fresh1 med-size onion, chopped (2/3 cup)1/4 cup instant minced or chopped onion
Onion Juice2 tbsp3/4 tsp instant minced onion
Onion Juice2 tbsp3/4 tsp onion flakes
Orange1 medium6-8 tbsp juice
Orange Peel (fresh, grated)1 tsp1 tsp dried orange peel
Orange Peel (fresh, grated)1 tsp1/2 tsp orange extract
Orange Peel (fresh, grated)1 tsp2 tbsp orange juice (for flavoring)
Peas, Snowequal amountSugar snap peas
Pimento2 tbsp chopped3 tbsp red bell pepper, chopped
Peppers, Green Bell1 tbsp dried3 tbsp fresh fresh green pepper, chopped
Peppers, Red Bell1 tbsp dried3 tbsp fresh red bell pepper, chopped
Peppers, Red Bell1 tbsp dried2 tbsp pimiento, chopped
Potatoes, mashed1 lb1 1/3 cups instant mashed potatoes, prepared
Raisinsequal amountCurrants, dried cherries, dried cranberries, chopped dates or chopped prunes
Shallots, choppedequal amountGreen onions (white part only)
Shallots, choppedequal amountOnions, dash crushed garlic
Tomatilloequal amountFresh green tomatoes plus a little lemon juice
Tomato Juice1 cup1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water
Tomato Paste1/2 cup1 cup tomato sauce cooked uncovered to reduced to 1/2 cup
Tomato Sauce2 cups3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water
Tomato Soup2 cups1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water
Tomatoes1 can2 1/2 cups chopped, peeled fresh tomatoes, simmered about 10 minutes
Tomatoes, chopped16 oz can3 fresh medium tomatoes
Tomatoes, chopped16 oz can16 oz can stewed tomatoes
Truffles1 oz1 oz shiitake mushrooms

Herbs and Spices


Allspice1 tsp1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. ground cloves, 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg
Ammonium carbonate3/4 tsp1 tsp baking soda
Anchovy, mashed11 tsp anchovy paste
Anise Extract1 tsp1 1/2 tsp anise seed
Aniseed1 tsp1 tsp Fennel seed or a few drops anise extract
Apple Pie Spice1 tsp1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground nutmeg, 1/8 tsp ground allspice, 1/8 tsp ground cardamom
Apple Pie Spice1 tsp1 tsp cinnamon plus 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg
Apple Pie Spice1 tsp1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground allspice and 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg
Apple Pie Spice1 tsp1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom
Arrowroot1 tbsp2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Arrowroot1 tbsp1 tbsp cornstarch
Basil1 tsp1 tsp Oregano or thyme
Bay Leaf1 whole1/4 tsp crushed
Beau monde1 tbsp2 tsp onion powder, 1 tsp celery salt
Cardamom1 tsp1 tsp Ginger
Cardamom1 tsp1 tsp ground cinnamon
Cayenne1/8 tsp4 drops tabasco sauce
Celery Salt1 tsp3/4 tsp salt, 1/4 tsp crushed celery seed
Celery seed (for pickling)1 tbsp1 tbsp dill seed
Chervil1 tsp1 tsp dried parsley flakes plus 1/8 tsp rubbed, dried sage
Chervil1 tsp1 tsp parsley
Chili Hot Red, dried, whole1 tsp1 tsp Crushed red pepper
Chili Powder, hot1 tbsp2 tsp cumin, 1 tsp cayenne, 1 tsp oregano, 1/2 tsp garlic powder
Chinese Five Spice1 tsp1/4 tsp each of: Crushed anise seeds, ground cinnamon, ground cloves and ground ginger
Chivesequal amountGreen onion, onion, or leek
Cilantroequal amountParsley
Cinnamon1 tsp1/4 tsp Nutmeg or allspice
Cinnamon Sugar1 cup7/8 cup granulated sugar, 2 tbsp ground cinnamon
Clovesequal amountAllspice, cinnamon, or nutmeg
Cuminequal amountChili powder
Curry Powder1 tbsp1/2 tsp ground cardamom, 1/2 tsp cayenne, 1/2 tsp ground coriander seed, 1/2 tsp cumin, 1/2 tsp ground ginger, 1/2 tsp turmeric
Dill3 tsp fresh chopped1 tsp dried dill
Dried Herbs1/2 tsp dried1 tsp fresh
Fennel seeds1 tsp1 tsp caraway seeds
Fines Herbs1 tsp1/4 tsp each of dried thyme leaves, oregano leaves, sage leaves and rosemary
Five Spice Power5 tsp1 tsp ground anise, 1 tsp ground fennel, 1 tsp ground cloves, 1 tsp ground cinnamon, 1 tsp ground pepper
Garlic1 clove fresh1/8 tsp garlic powder
Garlic1 clove fresh1 tsp garlic paste
Garlic1 clove fresh1/2 tsp garlic juice
Garlic1 clove fresh1/2 tsp garlic salt
Garlic1 clove fresh3/4 tsp minced garlic
Garlic Powder1/8 tsp1/2 tsp garlic juice
Garlic Powder1/8 tsp1/2 tsp garlic salt
Garlic Powder1/8 tsp1 tsp garlic paste
Garlic Salt1/2 tsp1/2 tsp garlic juice
Garlic Salt1/2 tsp1/8 tsp garlic powder
Garlic Salt1/2 tsp1 clove garlic, minced
Ginger1 tbspAllspice, cinnamon, galangal, mace, or nutmeg
Ginger1 tbsp1/8 tsp powdered ginger
Gingerroot (grated fresh)1/2 tsp1/4 tsp ground ginger
Herbs, dried leaf1 tsp1/4 tsp herbs, powdered
Herbs, fresh1 tsp1/2 tsp herbs, dried
Italian Seasoning2 tbsp1 tsp each of: basil, oregano, marjoram, rosemary, sage and thyme
Leeks (sliced)1/2 cup1/2 cup sliced green onions or shallots
Maceequal amountAllspice, cinnamon, ginger, or nutmeg
Marjoramequal amountBasil, thyme, or savory
Mintequal amountBasil, marjoram, or rosemary
Nutmegequal amountCinnamon, ginger, or mace
Onion Powder1 tsp1 tbsp instant minced onion
Oreganoequal amountThyme, basil, or marjoram
Parsley, dried1 tsp1 tsp Chervil or cilantro
Parsley, fresh, chopped1 tbsp1 tsp parsley flakes
Pepper flakes, hot1 tsp1/2 tsp cayenne
Poultry Seasoning1 1/3 tsp3/4 tsp sage, 1/4 tsp thyme, 1/8 tsp ground cloves, 1/4 tsp pepper
Pumpkin Pie Spice1 tsp1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg, 1/8 tsp ground mace, 1/8 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground cloves
Pumpkin Pie Spice1 tsp1/2 tsp ground cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ground ginger, 1/8 tsp ground allspice, 1/8 tsp ground nutmeg
Red Pepperequal amountDash bottled hot pepper sauce or black pepper
Rosemaryequal amountThyme, tarragon, or savory
Sageequal amountPoultry seasoning, savory, marjoram, or rosemary
Salt, seasoned4 tsp2 tsp salt, 1/2 tsp sage, 1/2 tsp parsley flakes, 1/2 tsp onion powder, 1/4 tsp marjoram, 1/4 tsp paprika
Salt, table1 tbsp1 1/2 tbsp kosher salt
Savoryequal amountThyme, marjoram, or sage
Sesame Seed1 tbsp1 tbsp finely chopped blanched almonds
Tarragonequal amountChervil, dash fennel seed, or dash aniseed
Thymeequal amountBasil, marjoram, oregano, or savory
Tumeric1 tsp1 tsp dry mustard



Beans, canned1 cup1/2 cup dried(cooked) (the devil is in the details)
Bacon, cooked and chopped1 strip1 tbsp bacon bits
Bacon, cooked and chopped1 stripSmoked ham
Bacon, cooked and chopped1 stripPancetta
Beerequal amountNonalcoholic beer, apple cider or beef broth
Bread Crumbsequal amountFinely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes or quick-cooking or old-fashioned oats
Bread Crumbs1/3 cup dry1 slice bread
Bread Crumbs3/4 cup soft1 slice bread
Bread Crumbs1 cup soft2 slices bread
Bread Crumbs1 cup soft3/4 cup cracker crumbs
Bread Crumbs1 cup soft1 1/3 cups oatmeal (uncooked)
Broth, chicken or beef1 cup1 cup boiling water, 1 bouillon cube, td1
Broth, chicken or beef1 cupcup boiling water, 1 tsp bouillon crystals
Bulgur, cookedequal amountCooked couscous or brown rice
Chili Pasteequal amountRed pepper flakes, cayenne, or bottled hot sauce
Chili Sauce1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice
Chili Sauce1 cup1 cup catsup, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice
Cocktail Sauce1 1/4 cups1 cup ketchup or chili sauce, 3 tbsp horseradish, 1 tbsp lemon juice, 2 tsp worcestershire sauce
Coconut, grated1 cup1 1/3 cups coconut, flaked
Coconut Creamequal amountWhipping cream
Coconut Milk1 cup1 cup whipping cream plus 1/2 tsp each of coconut extract and granulated sugar
Coconut Milk1 cup1 cup whole or 2% milk
Coconut Milk1 cup3 tbsp cream of coconut, 7/8 cup water or low-fat milk
Cracker Crumbsequal amountDry bread crumbs
Espresso, Instant1 tsp2 tsp instant coffee
Espresso, Instant1 tsp1/2 tsp of dark roast instant coffee
Espresso, Instant1 tsp2 tsp instant coffee plus 1/2 tsp dark cocoa powder
Gelatin, flavored3 oz pkg prepared1 tbsp plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice
Honey1 cup1 1/4 cups granulated sugar with 1/4 cup water or apple juice
Honey1 cup7/8 cup buttermilk plus 2 tbsp melted shortening, whipped
Honey1 cup1 cup corn syrup
Horseradish, bottled2 tbsp1 tbsp horseradish, dried, 1 tbsp vinegar, 1 tbsp water
Horseradish, fresh1 tbsp2 tbsp bottled
Ketchup, Catsup (Tomato)1 cup1 can tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup granulated sugar and 2 tbsp white vinegar
Ketchup, Catsup (Tomato)1 cup1 cup chili sauce
Mayonnaise, commercial1 cup1 cup cottage cheese (process in blender until smooth)
Mayonnaise, commercial1 cup1/2 cup mayonnaise, 1/2 cup plain yogurt
Mayonnaise, commercial1 cup1 cup salad dressing
Mayonnaise, commercial1 cup1 cup sour cream
Mayonnaise, commercial1 cup1 cup yogurt
Mayonnaise, homemade1 cup1 cup commercial mayonnaise, 1 tsp lemon juice, 1 tsp prepared mustard
Mustard, dry (for wet mixtures)1 tsp1 tbsp prepared mustard
Mustard, prepared1 tbsp1 tbsp dry mustard, 1 tsp vinegar, 1 tsp water, milk or cream, 1 tsp sugar
Pancake Syrupequal amount1/2 cup brown sugar plus 1 1/2 cup water plus 2 1/2 tsp cornstarch. Cook until slightly thickened.
Pepperoniequal amountSoppressata
Pie Crust Mix8 cups6 1/4 cups flour, 1 tbsp salt, 2 1/2 cups shortening
Red Pepper Sauce3 or 4 drops1/8 tsp ground red pepper (cayenne)
Rice1 cup regular, uncooked1 cup uncooked converted rice (3 cups cooked)
Rice1 cup regular, uncooked1 cup uncooked brown rice
Rice1 cup regular, uncooked1 cup uncooked wild rice
Rice1 cup cooked1 cup cooked bulgur wheat
Rice1 cup cooked1 cup cooked pearl barley
Rum1 tbsp dark rum2 tbsp rum extract
Rum5 tbsp light rum1 tbsp rum extract
Salamiequal amountPepperoni
Stock Base, instant2 tsp1 bouillon cube
Stock Base, instant4 tsp dissolved in 1 1/4 cup water1 can (10 1/2 oz) condensed, undiluted bouillon or consummé
Tabasco Sauce4 drops18 tsp cayenne
Tabasco Sauce4 drops1/4 tsp black pepper
Taco Seasoning1 pkg (1 1/4 oz size)4 tsp instant minced onion, 2 tsp chili powder, 2 tsp salt, 1 tsp garlic powder, 1 tsp cornstarch, 1 tsp ground cumin, 1 tsp cayenne
Tapioca1 tbsp1 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour
Tapioca1 tbsp2 tbsp pearl tapioca
Tartar Sauce1/2 cup6 tbsp mayonnaise, 2 tbsp pickle relish
White Sauce1 cup10 /4 oz canned cream-style soup (undiluted)
Wine (for cooking)equal amountApple juice or cider
Wine (for marinade)1/2 cup1/4 cup vinegar, 1/4 cup water, 1 tbsp sugar
Wine, Redequal amountNonalcoholic wine, apple cider, beef broth, tomato juice or water
Wine, Riceequal amountDry sherry
Wine, Whiteequal amountNonalcoholic wine, white grape juice, apple juice, apple cider, chicken broth, or water
Worcestershire Sauce1 tsp1 tsp bottled steak sauce
Worcestershire Sauce1 tsp1 tbsp soy sauce, 4 drops tabasco sauce, 1/8 tsp lemon juice, dash sugar

Pan Sizes

Dimensions (inches)Volume (cups)Area (sq in)
81 1/2550
91 1/26 1/264
928 3/464
10210 3/479
102.513 1/279
6 x 61.754 1/436
8 x 81.56 1/264
8 x 828 3/464
9 x 91.58 1/281
9 x 9211 1/481
10 x 10213 3/4100
11 x 7210 1/277
13 x 9216 1/4117
Jelly Roll
10.5 x 15.5111 1/4162
12.5 x 17.5115218
8 x 42.55 1/2
8.5 x 4.52.56 1/2
9 x 539 1/4
1 3/43/41/8
2 3/41 1/81/2
2 3/41.55/8
31 1/45/8
Heart Shaped